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Please note: the information below contains much useful information about the relationship between pest control and health risks caused by pests. This is meant for use with pest control only.  Although we have attempted to make it scientifically accurate, and we believe that our health related points are medically sound, the object of this glossary is to describe the relationship between pests and disease. iI is in no way intended for use in diagnosing disease and/or medical treatment of any kind. Be sure to see a qualified medical practitioner for any health questions.


A

Acanthamoeba Infection – Is a microscopic, free-living ameba (single-celled living organism) that can cause rare, but severe infections of the eye, skin, and central nervous system. The ameba is found worldwide in the environment in water and soil.

American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas Disease) – Chagas disease is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the disease in 1909. It is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted to animals and people by insect vectors that are found only in the Americas (mainly, in rural areas of Latin America where poverty is widespread). Chagas disease (T. cruzi infection) is also referred to as American trypanosomiasis.

Ant Control – Ant control involves exclusion and sanitation, that is keeping them out, and keeping areas where sweet foods may be stored sanitized. No building entirely eliminates ants, but they are best controlled by reducing their population year round, which is more effective than a single treatment with no follow up or prevention.

Ant Extermination – Ants are best exterminated by baits. Baits are any poison mixed with various kinds of proteins or sweets, which are attractive to ants. Worker ants feed on them, carrying them back the nest where they are distributed around the colony, even to the queen. Sprays and other forms of natural pest control substances can also be used to exterminate ants.

Ant Pest Control – Controlling ants is really a collaboration between the pest control specialist and the homeowner. Control involves not only getting rid of them, but preventing them from returning later. You may be able to control the former, but you will need a specialist to achieve the latter. PESTOUT can explain why. They are only as far as the phone: 1-800-PESTOUT.

Any Pest – Any pest that invades the structure of your home, whether insect or rodent, can be dealt with effectively and removed. All pests need moisture and food. Making sure all access points are closed and proper prevention treatments are maintained will go a long way toward keeping any and all pests out.

A Pest – A pest is any insect or rodent that inhabits a house or a building in, under or around a structure. Pest control is the general service that applies preventative or remedial treatment to reduce the potential for damage and or health issues associated with pests. In Virginia, pests typically treated and prevented by pest control specialists like PESTOUT include termites, spiders, bed bugs, roaches, crickets, mosquitoes, spiders, ants, wasps, bees, hornets, spiders, rats and mice.

Aphid – Part of the lice family, aphids are any of numerous tiny soft-bodied insects of the family Aphididae of worldwide distribution, that suck the sap from the stems and leaves of various plants, some developing wings when overcrowding occurs: an important pest of many fruit trees and vegetable crops. Also called plant louse.

Arachnids – An animal with four pairs of legs and a body with two segments, belonging to a large class that includes spiders, scorpions, and mites. Class: Arachnida

Arsenic – Arsenic is a poison used as a bait in ant control. Baits are insecticides that are mixed with a sweet substance worker ants eat, and then carry back to the colony, exterminating it. Baits are one of the most effective treatments for any yard or crawl colonization, and house infestation.

B

Babesiosis (Babesia Infection) – Babesiosis is caused by microscopic parasites that infect red blood cells and are spread by certain ticks. In the United States, tickborne transmission is most common in particular regions and seasons: it mainly occurs in parts of the Northeast and upper Midwest and usually peaks during the warm months.

Balantidiasis (Balantidium Infection) – Balantidium coli, though rare in the US, is an intestinal protozoan parasite that can infect humans. These parasites can be transmitted through the fecal-oral route by contaminated food and water. Balantidium coli infection is mostly asymptomatic, but people with other serious illnesses can experience persistent diarrhea, abdominal pain, and sometimes a perforated colon.

Bed Bites – The bites caused by bed bugs. There are times when the bites get infected and can complicate into a MRSA infection (MRSA stands for: methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus. This is a genre of infectious bacteria that is difficult to kill because it is highly resistant to typical antibiotics in the penicillin family. Bed bug, tick, and spider bites can set up conditions where a MRSA infection develops, resulting in necrosis (dying tissue). This type of infection is serious and can require extended, high-dosage, antibiotic treatment and/or plastic surgery to close.) Bed bug bites can last for several weeks and should be treated by a competent health practitioner.

Bed Bug – A small wingless bloodsucking insect that infests the bedding and furnishings of houses and the nests of animals. Family: Cimicidae Bed bugs are now a serious problem worldwide. They are resurging due to travel, and are causing property loss, expense, and inconvenience. The good news is that bed bugs do not transmit disease. The best way to prevent bed bugs is regular inspection for signs of an infestation.

Bed Bug Bites – Bed bug bites first appear as small, red, itchy spots around an eighth to a quarter inch in diameter. They can increase to around the size of a dime or a nickel. If there is infection present the bites may eventually show as a small bulls-eye pattern around the core area. The appearance of bed bug bites usually looks different from person to person, making the bites by themselves unreliable in determining an active infestation. When an infestation is indicated by bites, seek professional inspection immediately. You can call 1-800-PESTOUT for a reliable determination of the scope of your problem.

Bed Bugs Control – After an infestation of bedbugs, control requires a very extensive and comprehensive program to eliminate them from their habitat in a house. Some methods include the use of pesticides, cold, heat, and even ozonation. Understanding these treatments, their pros and cons, is how a trained professional, like a PESTOUT inspector, can offer you the best solution.

Bed Bug Detection – They are flat red-brown seed shaped insects about the size of a small nail head. Bed bugs are visible to the naked eye and can be seen in the crevices of mattresses around the piping and in sheets. They also hide around baseboards and in cracks around trim and molding, or in the support rails of a bed. They can also populate from closets and suitcases, where they have been transported from foreign countries. Getting a pest management professional (PMP) involved as soon as possible rather than taking time to try to treat the problem yourself is effective in implementing a rapid extermination of the bed bugs. You’ll need to get them all, or the problem will not go away. A pest management company like PESTOUT should have instructions for residents on how to prepare the unit for a treatment which will include laundering and cleaning. PESTOUT is committed to helping people help themselves, in addition to taking the most comprehensive approach for bed bug removal available.

Bed Bug Evidence – Evidence of bed bugs is found in their bites, and also feces that they leave behind after feeding on people who are asleep in bed. Small blood spots, the size of a pin head, can also be seen, in addition to their egg shells, shed nymph skins, or even the remains of dead bedbugs that have been crushed. Live bed bugs are usually not detectable when they are actually feeding. After a few days welts appear as evidence of a bite. If there is a swarm, bites can be profuse. Feces are visible but very small, black and dot shaped. They look like small poppy seeds around the area of feeding, usually in sheets.

Bed Bug Extermination – Exterminating bed bugs can be extremely difficult because they populate persistently, and hide in hard to reach places. A comprehensive, professional program like the PESTOUT approach is the best way to get rid of them entirely. You can however do several things. If you have discovered bedbugs, or their feces in the sheets of your home after returning from travel, there are some things you can do immediately to start remedying the problem. You can take the luggage you were using, somewhere out of the house, and heat it to 120 degrees F. Also, you can spread diatomaceous earth around the base of your bed, the crevices of the bed rails, the mattress, any closets near the bed, the baseboards, and drawers where you may have placed clothes after unpacking. These can reduce the rate at which beg bugs populate a house, but they are not guaranteed to get them all out. For complete bedbug extermination, you will need to hire professionals.

Bed Bug Infestations – An infestation of bedbugs occurs when they have had a chance to multiply in your house to the point where they are no longer located in one place, but have begun to reproduce and populate closets, walls, drawers, floors and mattresses. Even if only a few bedbugs were transported into your house from luggage of packaging, after several weeks, they can reproduce in numbers that qualify for an infestation. If you are wondering whether or not you have bed bugs, call PESTOUT for an inspection. There are other telltale signs, besides itchy bites. You may have a bedbug infestation. Once it has been determined that you do have a bedbug infestation, a comprehensive elimination program is the way to be sure they are gone.

Bed Bug Pesticide – Currently, there are over 300 pesticides and products registered by EPA for use against bed bugs – the majority of which can be used by consumers. However a comprehensive strategy is recommended to really produce the desired result. Several classes of chemicals are utilized in these products – like diatomaceous earth, a powdery substance that kills them on contact with their bodies. Each class share a similar mode of action, or way in which the chemical affects the biological functions of a bed bug. The EPA provides the following bedbug pesticide alert:

• Never use a pesticide indoors that is intended for outdoor use. It is very dangerous and won’t solve your bed bug problem.

• Using the wrong pesticide or using it incorrectly to treat for bed bugs can make you sick, may not solve the problem, and could even make it worse by causing the bed bugs to hide where the pesticide won’t reach them.

• Check if the product is effective against bedbugs — if a pest isn’t listed on the product label, the pesticide has not been tested on that pest and it may not be effective. Don’t use a product or allow a pest control operator to treat your home unless bed bugs are named on the product label.

• Before using any pesticide product, READ THE LABEL FIRST, then follow the directions for use.

• Keep in mind that any pesticide product without an EPA registration number has not been reviewed by EPA, so we haven’t determined how well the product works.

Bed Bug Removal – Involves the following recommendations from the Environmental Protection Agency:

• Inspecting infested areas and living spaces within close proximity.

• Checking for luggage and clothes when returning home from a trip

• Looking for bed bugs or signs of infestation on secondhand items before bringing the items home

• Correctly identifying the pest

• Keeping detailed records that include dates when and locations where pests are found

• Thorough cleaning of all items within a bed bug infested living area

• Reducing clutter where bed bugs can hide

• Eliminating bed bug habitats

• Physically removing bed bugs through cleaning

• Using pesticides carefully according to the label directions

• Following up inspections and possible treatments

• Raising awareness through education on prevention of bed bugs.

Bioaerosols – A bioaerosol (short for biological aerosol) is a suspension of airborne particles that contain living organisms or were released from living organisms. These particles are very small and range in size from less than one micrometer (0.00004″) to one hundred micrometers (0.004″). Bioaerosols react to air currents and move quickly or slowly depending on the environment. Bioaerosols are impacted by gravity but due to their size air density and air currents play a large role in their movement.

Biosolids – Solid organic matter recovered from a sewage treatment process and used especially as fertilizer.

Body Lice Infestation (Pediculosis) – Adult body lice are 2.3-3.6 mm in length. Body lice live and lay eggs on clothing and only move to the skin to feed. Body lice are known to spread disease. Body lice infestations (pediculosis) are spread most commonly by close person-to-person contact but are generally limited to persons who live under conditions of crowding and poor hygiene (for example, the homeless, refugees, etc.). Dogs, cats, and other pets do not play a role in the transmission of human lice.

Brucellosis – Also called Bang’s disease, Crimean fever, Gibraltar fever, Malta fever, Maltese fever, Mediterranean fever, rock fever, or undulant fever is a highly contagious zoonosis caused by ingestion of unsterilized milk or meat from infected animals or close contact with their secretions.

Bulls-eye Pattern – A symptom for seriously infected spider, bed bug or tick bites. The pattern is usually a red “bulls-eye” (erythema migrans (EM)), a ring shaped rash that expands around the bite site. It is characterized by a red center, a concentric lighter area, and then a secondary reddish band encircling the area. This rash can spread and cause other bulls-eye rings to show up, even when not centered around a bite site. The rash can start anywhere from 3 to 30 days after being infected and can grow from the size of a quarter to four to six inches.

C

Chlordane – Now banned by the EPA, chlordane was the primary treatment chemical in past pest control. It is still present in the soil of many crawl spaces in residences that were formerly treated for termites. Because the Hampton Roads area of Virginia has a high water table, this chemical would be easier to migrate into the area through leaching into subterranean water.

Cockroaches – Is the longer form of the name for pests otherwise referred to as “roaches.” The term originated from the Spanish word for beetle, “cucaracha.” There are as many as 4,500 total species of roaches associated with human habitations. About four of them are well known as pests, among which is the predominant German Cock roach, which is around 1 1/4” in length. Others are the American Cockroach, the Asian Cockroach, and the larger Florida woods cockroach, the Palmetto bug, which can grow up to 2 inches. When disturbed, cockroaches can emit a strong stinking odor. They require pest control, because they can passively transport disease borne microbes to surfaces and human contact.

Common Pests – Common pests in Virginia and Hampton Roads are termites, spiders, ants, fleas, mites, ticks, roaches, and stinging insects like hornets, and wasps. Although bed bugs are not indigenous to Virginia, they are in Hampton Roads, and are now increasingly prevalent due to increased travel in countries where they are found in prolific numbers. Travelers bring them back home from foreign countries, or hotels. Carried back in suit cases, they emerge to infest homes and breed further.

Condensation – When water vapor condenses into a liquid, which in a crawl space has the effect of attracting termites, general pests, and promoting the growth of mold and wood decay fungus.

Crabs (Pubic Lice) – Adult pubic lice are 1.1-1.8 mm in length. Pubic lice typically are found attached to hair in the pubic area but sometimes are found on coarse hair elsewhere on the body (for example, eyebrows, eyelashes, beard, mustache, chest, armpits, etc.).

Crawl Space – That area of some houses that is directly over the foundation, and under the 1st floor of the house. Because most crawl spaces have a loosely covered dirt or sand base, sometimes not covered, humidity levels can rise to a point that attracts pests, and/or stimulates the growth of mold. In houses with a crawl space, the area around the foundation is the primary access point for termites, ants, roaches, others pests, and rodents. They all like the dirt, the dark, and the damp, and the protection from the elements that the crawl space affords. PESTOUT specializes in setting the proper balance in a crawl space between temperature and moisture.

Crawl Space Ventilation – A mechanical system of aeration in the crawl space that controls humidity and the build up of moisture, fostering mold and mildew

Creosote – Is a tar based, thick liquid previously used in pest control, and has gone the way of other toxins like Chlordane for use in pest control. More current methods of low impact pest control are available from pest management specialists like PESTOUT.

D

Dew Point – How Pest Control Specialists maintain a more accurate measurement of temperature and humidity combined for moisture management

Diatomaceous Earth – Discovered in 1837, and also known as diatomite, or kieselgur, diatomaceous earth is a naturally occurring, soft, sedimentary rock that is easily crumbled into a fine white powder. It is used as an effective, natural alternative to toxins in pest control. The powder has an abrasive feel, like pumice, and is very light. Applied as a fine powder, it works very well to eliminate cockroaches as long as it remains in place and dry. Diatomaceous earth is harmless to humans and feels like talcum powder. Most insects, including bed bugs, are vulnerable to it. Diatomite is used as an insecticide, due to its physico-sorptive properties. The fine powder absorbs lipids from the waxy outer layer of insects’ exoskeletons, causing them to dehydrate. Arthropods die as a result of the water pressure deficiency. This also works against gastropods and is commonly employed in gardening to defeat slugs.

Diazinon – Is a dark brown liquid used in recent history as an insecticide. It was used heavily in Pest Control in the 1970s and 1980s for general purpose house and garden pest management. In 1988 the EPA restricted its use in golf courses and in the United States, as of December 31,2004, the sale of diazinon became unlawful as a non-agricultural product. PESTOUT also specializes in natural, non-toxic solutions to pest control, which are comprehensive, may take a little longer, but are entirely safe for humans, pets, and domestic environments. Natural pest control appeals to people who are not only concerned about the safety of their immediate environment, but who also care about non-point source pollution as it washes from houses and gardens into public waterways, leading to the Chesapeake Bay watershed, which has in recent years been the subject of serious environmental concerns.

Dibrom – Sold under the brand Naled,” with many of the same characteristics as malathion. Dibrom is a poison used as an insecticide in mosquito and grasshopper control, and is not harmful to plant life. It should not be used anywhere where pets, children or other wildlife may come into contact with it. It has been used to control the spread of West Nile Virus in the Midwest. Curiously, and insignificantly, it is the word “morbid” spelled backwards.

Disease From Mice – Mice and other rodents cause several forms of disease. Among them are Hantavirus, Hemorrhagic Fever, Renal Syndrome, Lassa Fever, Leptospirosis, Lymphopcytic Chorio-meningitis (LCM) Omsk Hemorrhagic Fever, Plague, Rat-Bite Fever, Salmonellosis, South American Arenaviruses, and Tularemia. If you have been diagnosed with one of these, and are looking for a cause, it may have been transmitted to you by mice or rodents. Many of these illnesses are transmitted by breathing dus that is contaminated with rodent urine or droppings. Pest control maintenance programs help reduce health risks by persistently keeping PESTS OUT.

E

Eastern Equine Encephalitis – Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) is a mosquito-borne viral disease and because of the rate of death among infected persons, it is regarded as one of the more serious mosquito-borne diseases in the United States. EEE occurs in the eastern half of the US as is most commonly detected around swamps in Virginia’s coastal plain.

Ectoparasites (Lice) – Although the term ectoparasites can broadly include blood-sucking arthropods such as mosquitoes (because they are dependent on a blood meal from a human host for their survival), this term is generally used more narrowly to refer to organisms such as ticks, fleas, lice, and mites that attach or burrow into the skin and remain there for relatively long periods of time (e.g., weeks to months). Arthropods are important in causing diseases in their own right, but are even more important as vectors, or transmitters, of many different pathogens that in turn cause tremendous morbidity and mortality from the diseases they cause.

Ehrlichia and Anaplasma Genera – A group of bacterial diseases transmitted by tick bites. The most common infectious conditions in Virginia are human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) and human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA). HME is transmitted only by the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum) and most commonly by bites from adult ticks. Lone star ticks are very common and are responsible for the most tick bites to people in Virginia. Another reckettsial disease is the more familiar Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Symptoms of ehrlichiosis can resemble the Flu. You may experience chills and fever, cough, energy loss, headache, and muscular pain. More serious symptoms include nausea, pain in the abdomen, and loss of appetite.

Ehrlichiosis – Is a tickborne disease of humans and animals caused by bacteria named Ehrlichia. The bacteria are transmitted by ticks and can infect two different types of white blood cells. The first human case in the U.S. was reported in 1986, in a man exposed to ticks in Arkansas.

EM Rash – Between three days to several weeks after being bitten by an infected tick, 70-90% of people develop a circular or oval rash, called erythema migrans (or EM), at the site of the bite. To qualify as an EM, the rash must be at least two inches in diameter. That is because bites by some tick species can cause local inflammation and redness around the bite that could be mistaken for an EM. Unlike localized inflammation, an EM rash will increase in size and may become more than 12 inches across. As it enlarges, the area around the center of the rash clears, giving it a “bull’s eye” appearance.

Encapsulation – Enclosing a crawl space so that it becomes a sealed atmosphere that prevents the infiltration of air, usually associated with mechanical dehydration devices.

F

Fleas – Wingless insects, with mouthparts adapted for piercing skin and sucking blood. They are parasites that live off of mammals, including bats and humans. They are visible to the naked eye, and measure around 1/16 to 1/8 of an inch. They can jump vertically up to 7 inches and horizontally up to 13 inches. The effect of their bite is itching, and in some cases an allergic reaction. The bitten area typically swells, with a single bite puncture in the middle of the welt. They can remain itchy and enflamed for several weeks. Frequent scratching can lead to a MRSA infection. They also transmit disease. Endemic typhus, tapeworm, and myxomatosis are among the diseases transmitted by vector fleas. It’s best to get them out, before they get worse.

Fleas Plague  – An infectious disease of animals and humans caused by a bacterium named Yersinia pestis. People usually get plague from being bitten by a rodent flea that is carrying the plague bacterium or by handling an infected animal. Millions of people in Europe died from plague in the Middle Ages, when human homes and places of work were inhabited by flea-infested rats. Today, modern antibiotics are effective against plague, but if an infected person is not treated promptly, the disease is likely to cause illness or death.

G

Giardiasis – An intestinal illness caused by a microscopic parasite called Giardia lamblia. It is a fairly common cause of diarrheal illness.

H

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) – Is a deadly disease transmitted by infected rodents through urine, droppings, or saliva. Humans can contract the disease when they breathe in the virus that is on dust and other debris floating in the air. HPS was first recognized in the southwest United States in 1993 and has since been identified throughout the United States. One case has been identified in Virginia. Rodent control in and around the home remains the primary strategy for preventing hantavirus infection.

HGA – Is transmitted only by the blacklegged tick (most commonly by bites from nymphal stage ticks). The bacteria causing HME or HGA will not be transmitted unless the infected tick has been attached and feeding for at least 24 hours.

I

Insect – A class of living creatures within the arthropod group.

Insect Identification – Insects are identified anatomically as having three-part bodies: 1) head, or top 2) thorax or middle section and 3) abdomen, or bottom section. They also have three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes and two antennae. Although humans relate to them in a rather strained sort of way, with alarm, revulsion and hostility, they are an integral part of life on earth and they do serve a purpose. They just don’t need to be integral with life in your home. Pest control specialists can identify insects, and also remove them, and help you understand how to keep them out.

Insulation – There are two types of insulation that are relevant to pest control, blow-in and batt Insulation is nothing more than a material that traps air and resists the transfer of heat. This means that insulation harbors a place for rodents and other insects. It also hides the existence of termites and pests. PESTOUT installs a special blown-in insulation that resists insects for 30 years.

IPM Pest Management – An industry term that stands for Integrated Pest Management. This particular form of pest control is referred to as “integrated” because it seeks to use ecologically viable approaches to controlling pests, as a part of, or separate from, poison pesticides. It integrates economic and non-toxic factors into managing pests, through understanding their patterns of propagation and infestation. PESTOUT Pest Control Services use standard pesticides to treat for pests because they are immediate, and effective. But they also utilize IPM, with natural pesticides wherever and whenever a client’s concerns indicted the need.

J

K

Kala-azar (Leishmaniasis, Leishmania Infection) – Cutaneous leishmaniasis, the most common form of the disease, causes skin ulcers. Visceral leishmaniasis causes a severe systemic disease that is usually fatal without treatment. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is a rare but severe form affecting the nasal and oral mucosa. Leishmaniasis is transmitted by the bite of small insects called sand flies. Many leishmanial species infect animals as well as humans. The distribution is world-wide.

L

La Crosse encephalitis – (LAC) encephalitis is a mosquito-borne virus that was discovered in La Crosse, Wisconsin in 1963. Since then, the virus has been identified in several Midwestern and Mid-Atlantic states, including western parts of Virginia.b

Larvae – Largely referring to insect young, a larva embodies the juvenile phase that many creatures go through in their metamorphosis into adults. For example a caterpillar is the larva form of an adult butterfly. The larvae of mosquitoes can be found in all the little pockets of water that form in gullies, pans, gutters, barrels, cans, bags and tools left outside around the house. They are very small, and may not be visible to some people, but they grow into thousands of mosquitoes and make outside activities miserable in the summer. Pest control experts know where to look for insect larvae, which in turn goes a long way toward inhibiting their overpopulation. Homeowners can help reduce mosquito larva by eliminating as many locations of standing water as possible around the perimeter of their homes.

Leishmaniasis – (Kala-azar, Leishmania Infection) Leishmaniasis is transmitted by the bite of small insects called sand flies. Many leishmanial species infect animals as well as humans. The distribution is world-wide.

LICE

Head Lice Pediculus humanus capitis (head louse), are roughly 2-3 mm long. Head lice infest the head and neck and attach their eggs to the base of the hair shaft. Lice move by crawling; they cannot hop or fly. Head lice infestation, or pediculosis, is spread most commonly by close person-to-person contact. Dogs, cats, and other pets do not play a role in the transmission of human lice. Adult body lice are 2.3-3.6 mm in length. Body lice live and lay eggs on clothing and only move to the skin to feed.

Head Lice Infestation (Pediculosis) Adult head lice are roughly 2-3 mm long. Head lice infest the head and neck and attach their eggs to the base of the hair shaft. Lice move by crawling; they cannot hop or fly. Head lice infestation, or pediculosis, is spread most commonly by close person-to-person contact. Dogs, cats, and other pets do not play a role in the transmission of human lice.

Body lice Pediculus humanus corporis (body louse, clothes louse) are known to spread disease. Body lice infestations (pediculosis) are spread most commonly by close person-to-person contact but are generally limited to persons who live under conditions of crowding and poor hygiene (for example, the homeless, refugees, etc.). Dogs, cats, and other pets do not play a role in the transmission of human lice. Improved hygiene and access to regular changes of clean clothes is the only treatment needed for body lice infestations.

Body Lice Infestation (Pediculosis) Adult body lice are 2.3-3.6 mm in length. Body lice live and lay eggs on clothing and only move to the skin to feed. Body lice are known to spread disease. Body lice infestations (pediculosis) are spread most commonly by close person-to-person contact but are generally limited to persons who live under conditions of crowding and poor hygiene (for example, the homeless, refugees, etc.). Dogs, cats, and other pets do not play a role in the transmission of human lice.

Pubic lice Pthirus pubis (“crab” louse, pubic louse). are 1.1-1.8 mm in length. Pubic lice typically are found attached to hair in the pubic area but sometimes are found on coarse hair elsewhere on the body (for example, eyebrows, eyelashes, beard, mustache, chest, armpits, etc.).

Pubic lice infestations (pthiriasis) are usually spread through sexual contact. Dogs, cats, and other pets do not play a role in the transmission of human lice.Both over-the-counter and prescription medications are available for treatment of pubic lice infestations.

Lice Infestation – (Body, Head, or Pubic Lice, Pediculosis, Pthiriasis) An infestation is when lice have populated to a level in a house where they are an annoyance and a health risk to humans and pets.

Lyme Disease – Named from Lyme Connecticut, where it was originally discovered, this disease is caused by the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi, which is found in rodents. They are then transmitted by “vectors,” which are usually insects that bite the infected animal and then carry the bacteria as a vector from its source to its victim. Symptoms are diverse, but they usually begin with the formation of a reddish “bulls-eye” pattern around the core of the bite. After a few days or weeks, a flu-like set of symptoms develops, including fever, headaches, fatique, and soreness in the throat and glands. Without treatment over time, Lyme Disease can progress into more severe symptoms of joint inflammation, intense headaches, stiffness around the neck, chest pain, weakness, and even paralysis in the face.

M

Malaria (Plasmodium Infection) – Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by a parasite. People with malaria often experience fever, chills, and flu-like illness.

Mice and Disease – Because mice are rodents and are unclean, they can cause disease. This comes from smaller parasites and pests that they bear in their fur, saliva, blood, or urine. Disease from mice can be transmitted from their droppings or the pests that are attracted to their droppings. Because mice can fit through a hole the size of a nickel, they can enter a house, reproduce, and transmit disease into areas of the house where humans store and eat food, like kitchen cabinets, countertops and tables. Because they are nocturnal, that is they are awake all night, and sleep all day, they are hard to track and eliminate because when we sleep, they eat. The kind of disease they spread can infect areas without any sign that they have been in contact with the clean surfaces in a home. Some rodent born diseases are serious, so getting rodent pests out is important.

Mite Infestation (Scabies) – Human scabies is caused by an infestation of the skin by the human itch mite (Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis). The microscopic scabies mite burrows into the upper layer of the skin where it lives and lays its eggs. The most common symptoms of scabies are intense itching and a pimple-like skin rash. The scabies mite usually is spread by direct, prolonged, skin-to-skin contact with a person who has scabies.

Moisture Control –Controlling moisture requires control of all the influences, materials, and systems in a house that can cause and perpetuate moisture conditions. The foundation for a new house should be set at an elevation that is well above a substrate of clay or a high water table. The crawl space should not be lower than the surrounding yard surfaces. Grounds around the house should be properly graded. Gutters should be adequate for the pitch of the roof. If water tends to run toward the house from surrounding exterior surfaces, a French drain system should be installed. Water evacuation sump pumps and drainage to carry water way can be installed for higher levels of control. Plastic that is at least 6 mil, (six thousandths of an inch) or higher (for encapsulations) should be laid over the base of the crawl. Sealing or encapsulating the crawl space are options that help with moisture control where vents are not sufficient. Another more cost effective way to handle moisture is with the use of natural ventilation, provided that accurate monitoring of the crawlspace and exterior dew point is maintained. In persistent conditions, sensor controlled fans, and dehumidifiers may be necessary. Because every structure has its own unique challenge, a moisture control specialist, like PESTOUT, can help you understand how to approach the problem in your house, and recommend a system that is custom designed for your particular conditions.

Moisture Problems – Are mostly found in crawl space areas of homes where humidity levels reach a destructive point. Mold , fungus and mildew can cause serious issues as allergens, and even sickness. Excessive, prolonged moisture causes fungi to form, which in turn can and will rot wood. Areas that can be affected are floor joists, wall studs, and wooden floor slabs. If the area is structural, more and costly damage may follow. Odor, rot, insect propagation and infestation, allergens and mold are the principle problems stemming from excessive moisture in the home.

Mold – Molds are types of fungi that are found everywhere. Molds reproduce by means of tiny spores; the spores are invisible to the naked eye and float through outdoor and indoor air. Mold may begin growing indoors when mold spores land on surfaces that are wet. Visible mold is an indication of excessive dampness; the source of moisture should be sought and corrected before the mold contamination is remediated. There are many types of mold, and none of them will grow without water or moisture. Molds are part of the natural environment. Outdoors, molds play a part in nature by breaking down dead organic matter such as fallen leaves and dead trees, but indoors, mold growth should be avoided. There is no practical way to eliminate all mold and mold spores in the indoor environment; the way to control indoor mold growth is to control moisture.

Mold Disease – Fungal infections caused by mold are Aspergillosis, Blastomycosis, Coccidiodomycosis, Cryptococcosis, Histoplasmosis, and Sporotrichosis. These funguses are transmitted as airborne particulates which are inhaled in dusty, moldy environments. Symptoms are generally allergic, respiratory reactions, which may include wheezing and coughing. Some symptoms are more invasive than others and can affect lung tissue and spread further throughout the body. Wearing an NIOSH rated N95 dust mask and avoidance of mold covered materials and activities around mold is helpful. Keeping damp areas of the house, in attics, floors, walls, and and crawl space also helps reduce the presence and symptoms of mold exposure.

Mosquitoes – Are actually in the nematocerid fly family, Culicidae. They are particularly annoying and dangerous because they feed on the blood of humans and animals. If that weren’t bad enough, they also transmit some very serious, even fatal diseases from infected hosts. Malaria and West Nile Virus are two such diseases. Malaria is one of the top fatal diseases in the world, but not all cases of it result in death. It is curable with quinine and related drugs and is preventable with advance prophylaxis drugs. Nets and repellants also help prevent bites from disease born mosquitoes. Wikipedia quotes some authorities as referring to mosquitoes as the most dangerous animals on earth.

Mosquito Control – Mosquito control is a part of public health programs worldwide, not only because mosquito bites itch, but because many vector (insect) borne infectious diseases are carried by mosquitoes, which can spread fatal illness at epidemic levels. In most parts of the world where mosquito programs exist, they are implemented by the use of fogging trucks which spray insecticides. Although this level of control only lasts a few days, inhibiting mosquito populations helps reduce disease potential.

Mosquito Spray – A form of mosquito control, ranging from government operated, truck-mounted fogging units, to professional pest control services, to consumer spray cans. The best part of the day to kill mosquitoes is at dusk, when they are active and feeding. Mosquito sprays should be made of pesticides that are approved by the USEPA (the Environmental Protection Agency.)

Mosquito Treatment – Mosquito bites can really itch. Although scratching feels better, it shouldn’t be regarded as a treatment, because it can set the site up for a MRSA infection (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus –for more info on MRSA, see “Bed Bugs” in this glossary). Although MRSA infections are not caused by mosquito saliva, they can complicate into a more serious skin condition. For the most part, treating mosquito bites involves relieving the itch, and reducing the welt that develops. Most of us know that waiting is one way to treat a bite. Other simple methods include topical application of over-the-counter cortisone skin fluids, a paste made of baking soda and water, calamine lotion, anti-inflammatory drugs like Ibuprofen/Motrin/Advil, Aloe vera gel, and other commercially available products made specifically for treating mosquito bites. Treatment for mosquito bite related disease should be conducted by a qualified medical professional.

Mosquitoes, West Nile Virus – An infection spread by mosquitoes, which symptoms are similar to a cold or flu at first, that is a fever and headache. Other, more serious symptoms may follow. But the virus can lead to inflammation of the brain. So symptoms should be diagnosed immediately by a medical professional, whenever the disease is suspected. Most people have no symptoms from West Nile Virus. Approximately 20% of people with the virus develop West Nile Fever.

Myiasis – Myiasis is the infection of a fly larva (maggot) in human tissue. This occurs in tropical and subtropical areas. Myiasis is rarely acquired in the United States; people typically get the infection when they travel to tropical areas in Africa and South America. People traveling with untreated and open wounds are more at risk for getting myiasis. Fly larvae need to be surgically removed by a medical professional.

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Natural Pest Control – Generally means controlling pests without the use of potentially harmful toxic chemicals. It is sometimes referred to as green pest control. Natural pest control is generally regarded as safer in use around children and pets, and can use alternative methods of prevention besides just spraying. PESTOUT is very familiar with most up to date methods of natural pest control, and can educate you on how you can help use safe household substances, like vinegar, or diatomaceous earth to control pests. Otherwise, PESTOUT has alternative approaches that will keep pests away, while also considering the safety of your pets and children. Natural pest control is approached differently from conventional treatments, requiring a more persistent treatment program than conventional pest control applications.

Neglected Infections of Poverty – Are parasitic, bacterial and viral infections that disproportionately affect impoverished people in the United States. These infections are considered neglected because relatively little attention has been devoted to surveillance, prevention, and/or treatment of these infections.

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Onchocerciasis (River Blindness) – Onchocerciasis, or River Blindness, is a Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) caused by the parasitic worm Onchocerca volvulus. It is transmitted through repeated bites by blackflies of the genus Simulium. The disease is called River Blindness because the blackfly that transmits the infection lives and breeds near fast-flowing streams and rivers and the infection can result in blindness. In addition to visual impairment or blindness, onchocerciasis causes skin disease, including nodules under the skin or debilitating itching. Worldwide onchocerciasis is second only to trachoma as an infectious cause of blindness.

Oral Rabies Vaccination – Refers to the vaccination of animals bearing the disease. Animal rabies programs that use vaccinations in foreign countries, for example to vaccinate dogs, often fail because it is impractical to reach all the animals affected by the disease, often in the wild. However, oral rabies vaccines can improve the efficacy of mass vaccination. Previous rabies control programmes using baits containing other oral rabies vaccines to vaccinate foxes in some European countries and wildlife in certain US states, have been successful.

Organic Bug Killer – Refers to natural pesticides and insecticides that are earth and people friendly, and free of the stronger industrial chemicals typically used for pest extermination.

Organic Pest Control – Focuses on the use of non-toxic elements, or solutions to get pests out. They are much safer than toxic chemicals, some of which have been banned by the EPA in recent years. Whether one method is more effective than the other is open to question, but as technologies improve, and the necessity to find alternative methods of pest control increases, more options for organic pest control will become available. Organic pest control may take a little longer to produce the desired result, but if the net result is the same and the home is free of allergens and/or toxins that may be harmful to pets and children, alternative measures may be desirable to some people. In addition to standard, EPA approved material treatments, PESTOUT keeps a comprehensive inventory of pest control measures that promote a natural, organic removal of pests . The idea is to get the pests out in the way you personally need them to be eliminated.

Ozone – Otherwise referred to as trioxygen, is a triatomic molecule, made up of of three oxygen atoms. In the lower atmosphere, ozone is an air pollutant with harmful effects on the respiratory systems of animals. It can burn some sensitive plants. On the other hand, the ozone layer in the upper atmosphere is beneficial, and prevents potentially damaging radiation from reaching the Earth’s surface. Ozone is present in low concentrations throughout the Earth’s atmosphere. In applications not involving the earth’s atmosphere, ozone can be quite beneficial, and is commonly used to kill disease pathogens like mold, mildew and bed bugs. Applied by professionals, ozone has many industrial and consumer applications, not the least of which is to GET THE PESTS OUT!

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Parasitic Infection – Causes a tremendous burden of disease in both the tropics and subtropics as well as in more temperate climates. Of all parasitic diseases, malaria causes the most deaths globally. Malaria kills approximately 1 million people each year, most of them young children in sub-Saharan Africa.

Pest Control – Refers to the regulation or management of an insect (ants, and six legged etc.) arachnid (spiders, and eight legged etc.) or wood destroying organism (termites and wood decay fungus.) Such management or regulation is necessary because of its perceived detriment to health, ecology, and the economy, where there is a distinct relationship between a geographic location and its appeal to tourists or local inhabitance.

Pest and Disease – Pests, like insects and rodents cause bites, stings and infections that lead to disease because they are unclean. The archaic term pestilence means sickness caused by pests, like malaria or bubonic plague. More local pest related diseases, in particular, which may be transmitted in Virginia and Hampton Roads, are Lyme’s disease and insect bite related MRSA infections. MRSA infections can be triggered by spider bites or bed bugs. Ticks spread Lyme Disease. The disease itself is found in Rodents.

Pest Killer – An individual or professional technician, and or device or material used to end the life of pests to human and agricultural life.

Pediculosis (Head or Body Lice Infestation) – Lice are parasitic insects that can be found on people’s heads, and bodies, including the pubic area. Human lice survive by feeding on human blood. Lice found on each area of the body are different from each other. The three types of lice that live on humans are:

Pediculus Humanus Capitis (Head Louse) –  Roughly 2-3 mm long. Head lice infest the head and neck and attach their eggs to the base of the hair shaft. Lice move by crawling; they cannot hop or fly. Head lice infestation, or pediculosis, is spread most commonly by close person-to-person contact. Dogs, cats, and other pets do not play a role in the transmission of human lice. (See Head Lice)

Pediculus Humanus Corporis (body louse, clothes louse) – Known to spread disease. Body lice infestations (pediculosis) are spread most commonly by close person-to-person contact but are generally limited to persons who live under conditions of crowding and poor hygiene (for example, the homeless, refugees, etc.). Dogs, cats, and other pets do not play a role in the transmission of human lice. (See Body Lice)

Pest Management Service – Also called integrated pest management (IPM), requires a shift from the typical pest control efforts that over emphasize poisoning and trapping. With IPM, pests and disease vectors (insect carriers) are managed by managing their environment, specifically in houses, crawl spaces, and yards. For IPM to succeed, the behavior and ecology of the target pest, the environment in which the pest is active, and the periodic changes that occur in the environment (including the people who share the environment) must be taken into account. In addition, the safety of the people, the environment, and the non-target animals such as pets, birds, and livestock must be considered.

Pest and Pesticides – Pesticides are not only the traditional method of treating pest problems, but they are also generally more effective, and less costly. However, there are many new methods of pest treatment that are natural, non-toxic and safer for children and pets. Because they are comprehensive, they can sometimes cost a little more, but they are particularly useful in circumstances where it is very important to reduce toxicity in an immediate living environment.

Pest Removal – Pest removal for insects and particularly for rodents require professional methods that are proven to be effective in reducing the spread of disease, and closing the access points that allowed the problem to arise in the first place.

Pest Solution – In order for a solution for a pest problem to work it needs to be effective and comprehensive. Effective means that they are eliminated when they become a problem. Comprehensive means that they are really eliminated, not just treated. This may involve a mult-pronged approach treating not only where pests live, but also what pests eat. It may involve an evaluation of the people and pets that live nearby, and a determination as to whether the approach should be chemical or natural, and toxic or non-toxic.

Plague – An infectious disease of animals and humans caused by a bacterium named Yersinia pestis. People usually get plague from being bitten by a rodent flea that is carrying the plague bacterium or by handling an infected animal. Millions of people in Europe died from plague in the Middle Ages, when human homes and places of work were inhabited by flea-infested rats. Today, modern antibiotics are effective against plague, but if an infected person is not treated promptly, the disease is likely to cause illness or death.

Plasmodium Infection (Malaria) – Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by a parasite. People with malaria often experience fever, chills, and flu-like illness. Left untreated, they may develop severe complications and die.

Proboscis – The long or tubular mouthparts of some insects, worms, and spiders, used for feeding, sucking, and other purposes

Protozoa – Microscopic, one-celled organisms that can be free-living or parasitic in nature. They are able to multiply in humans, which contributes to their survival and also permits serious infections to develop from just a single organism. Transmission of protozoa that live in a human intestine to another human typically occurs through a fecal-oral route (for example, contaminated food or water or person-to-person contact). Protozoa that live in the blood or tissue of humans are transmitted to other humans by an arthropod vector (for example, through the bite of a mosquito or sand fly).

Psittacosis – A disease that is caused by Chlamydophila psittaci and associated with psittacine birds; however, the bacteria can also infect poultry and non-psittacine birds.

Pthirus pubis (“crab” louse, pubic louse) – A specific lice parasite spread through sexual contact, otherwise known as an STD (sexually transmitted disease). They take 7-10 days to hatch, and feed on human blood. They are transmitted by physical contact with someone who already has them. Sometimes, they can be transmitted from towels or sheets used by people infested with them. Pubic lice can live for 24-48 hours after leaving a body. Adult crabs are visible to the naked eye, but are hard to see because they are light gray, white or light brown in color. Several non-prescription treatments are available in pharmacies. A prescription medication under the brand name Lindane is also available for treatment.

Pthiriasis (Pubic Lice Infestation) – Adult pubic lice are 1.1-1.8 mm in length. Pubic lice typically are found attached to hair in the pubic area but sometimes are found on coarse hair elsewhere on the body (for example, eyebrows, eyelashes, beard, mustache, chest, armpits, etc.).

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Quarantine – Refers to the isolation of either a person or a room in order to prevent the spread of pests or the diseases they bear.

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Rabies – A deadly disease caused by a virus that attacks the nervous system. It kills almost any mammal or human that gets sick from it. The rabies virus is mainly in the saliva and brain of rabid animals. It can be transmitted through a bite or by getting saliva or brain tissue in a wound or in the eye or mouth.

Rat Control – Controlling rats (and mice) is best left to a professional. The homeowner approach usually is too limited to cure the problem and keep them out. They first need to be isolated and then exterminated. Isolation involves plugging every known access point in the house. This can be very tricky. A rat can fit through a hole the size of a quarter, and a mouse can fit through a dime size hole. The PESTOUT approach is the BEST OUT approach, and will keep the pests out for good.

Rat-Bite Fever (RBF) – Is a bacterial disease caused by Actinobacillus muris and Spririllum minus. In the United States, rat-bite fever is primarily due to infection with A. muris. Rats are the main reservoir of these organisms, but can also possibly be transmitted by mice. Contact with a dead rodent can cause this condition, in addition to a bite or a scratch wound from an infected rodent. A qualified pest control technician knows how to handle a dead rodent properly in order to contain the potential for infection.

Rats and Mice – Rodents are some of the worst of house pests, because they not only eat the structure, overpopulate, and make annoying noises at night when you are trying to sleep, they also are unclean and are carriers of serious diseases and parasites that also are disease vectors. They leave urine and feces all over attic and crawl spaces and inside walls. When poisons are applied by a non-professional, rodents can die and create seriously bad odors that can be difficult to live around for weeks. Their carcasses also spread disease. They can ruin insulation, chew wires out, contaminate food, and open up access points for other creatures to enter the house. They can be very difficult to locate in some houses because they can move around within the spaces formed by joists and studs. A rodent encroachment should never be left unattended or untreated because they continue to populate and whatever problems they bring will only get worse.

Rat Traps – Rat and rodent traps come in two basic forms, those that kill rodents and those that don’t. Spring loaded rat and mouse traps, come with with a copper colored spring and wooden slab base are perhaps the most well known. Pumpkin seeds, peanut butter, and bacon are tried and true baits. Other newer styles are available at home centers and hardware stores. Spring traps require care and patience. Great care should be used to set up a spring trap, and patience is needed for rodents to find and trip them. Professional pest control experts should be involved because handling trapped, dead rodents without the knowledge of how disease is spread by them can be dangerous.

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) – Caused by infection with a bacterium called Rickettsia rickettsii. The disease is characterized by a sudden onset of symptoms and can be fatal if not treated. Nearly all cases occur in the spring and summer months.

Rodents – The general term in pest control for rats and mice.

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Scabies – Human scabies is caused by an infestation of the skin by the human itch mite (Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis). The microscopic scabies mite burrows into the upper layer of the skin where it lives and lays its eggs. The most common symptoms of scabies are intense itching and a pimple-like skin rash. The scabies mite usually is spread by direct, prolonged, skin-to-skin contact with a person who has scabies.

Spiders – Also called arachnids, do a lot of good in general insect control, but they are usually regarded as creepy, possibly dangerous, and unwanted. Spiders are different from insects in that they have eight legs as opposed to six. They are air breathing arthropods, which are scientifically referred to as arachnids. There are over 40,000 species worldwide, and some of them have poisonous venom. Their excrement (feces) are made of dried uric acid. Common spiders in Virginia are Wolf Spider, Black Widow, Grass Spider, Jumping Spider and Barn Spider. The most dangerous of these pests is the Black Widow, notorious for its poisonous venom, and red or yellow hour glass shape on its belly. A Black Widow bite is not necessarily lethal, but it can be very painful and potentially dangerous. If you suspect that you have been bitten, you should see a medical specialist immediately.

St. Louis Encephalitis – St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) is closely related to West Nile virus and is transmitted by the same mosquito species.

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Termite Control – Starts with good construction at the foundation. Termite shields are required by code in many states. A layer of aluminum is set across the top of the house foundation before the plate is bolted on and the floor box is constructed. It is bent downward on an angle so that if termites should make their way into your crawl space and tunnel up the concrete blocks to your floor, they will be forced to cycle back downward on the underside of the shield, where they fall back to the ground again. This can be an effective deterrent. Ma ny houses have not been built with termite shields, but require inspection and treatment, to pass a building inspection, or resell a home. Chemical treatments are the most familiar type of control, but more comprehensive treatments are also available, such as extermination at the nest site in the yard, or the PESTOUT method of treating what they eat, (your floors and walls) so that they are not interested in feeding there ever again. This can be done for new construction as well as a retro-installation process for existing homes.

Termite Treatment Cost – Termite treatments costs vary depending on the homeowners budget, the level of preventative management, they type of treatment, and the thoroughness of the treatment. A good professional service like PESTOUT, can help you determine what is best for your budget, and get the pests out in any condition, simple or serious. CALL 1-800-PESTOUT for a prompt estimate, or inspection.

Termite Treatment – Termite treatments are typically chemical sprays in and around the foundation of the house. However, many home buyers and owners confuse the inspection certificate with the treatment, or presence of termites. Just because your home has been inspected, doesn’t mean there are no termites there. In many cases, they are silent and unseen, and when they are finally observable, extensive, expensive damage has already occurred. A more comprehensive treatment, like PESTOUT offers, involves a thorough inspection, preventative management, materials treatment, and structural soil treatment. Because there are so many variables in termite encroachment, the best treatment is a comprehensive one.

Tick – The blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis), formerly known as the deer tick, is the only carrier of Lyme disease in the Eastern U.S. The blacklegged tick’s name comes from it being the only tick in the Eastern U.S. that bites humans and has legs that are black (or dark chocolate brown) in color.

Tick and Deer Fly Bites – Can be a carrier for Tularemia, a bacterial infection that comes from wild rodents, muskrats, and ground squirrels bitten by ticks or deer flies.

Tularemia – A disease of animals and humans caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis. Rabbits, hares, and rodents are especially susceptible and often die in large numbers during outbreaks. Humans can become infected through several routes, including:

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Vectors In Epidemiology – A vector is any agent (person, animal or microorganism) that carries and transmits an infectious pathogen into another living organism

Ventilation (See Crawl Space) – Good ventilation helps keep a crawl space dry. But it isn’t the only component to work with, and sometimes it can be inefficient in balancing moist and dry air conditions in the crawl space. Other factors include foundation sealing, crawl sealing, exterior grading, gutter design, and dehumidification. The PESTOUT approach works with ventilation by the use of a sensor / fan system that senses humidity levels and responds on or off depending on the need. A simple system that either stays on or stays off, doesn’t really address varying conditions that can sustain higher moisture levels than are acceptable.

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Wasp Control – Wasps like to make their homes in the same kind of conditions that humans like—shelter and water supply. Their nests can be very threatening, and anyone who has ever been attacked by a wasp or a hornet swarm knows why the threat is very real. Children can be seriously affected if they are allergic to wasp, hornet or bee venom. The problem with controlling and removing wasp nests is that when they are bothered, they attack. When they attack they sting. So who wants to mess with a nest? Furthermore, when the nest is removed they fly away, and then come back to build another one. That’s why controlling them in a way that removes them completely is a job for a professional. Let PESTOUT risk the stings and get the NEST-OUT for good. PESTOUT will get the NEST-OUT.

West Nile Virus – The West Nile virus infection is one that is spread by the bite of infected mosquitoes and usually causes a mild illness, but may also cause encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord) or polio-like paralysis. This virus is named after the West Nile region of Uganda where the virus was first isolated in 1937. It was first identified in the United States in New York in 1999.

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Zoonotic Diseases (Diseases spread from animals to people) – Diseases transmitted from animals are called zoonotic diseases. Zoonotic diseases can be caused by parasites and can cause various symptoms such as diarrhea, muscle aches, and fever. Sometimes infected persons experience severe symptoms that can be life-threatening.